||Li C, Wolgemuth CW, Marko M, Morgan DG, Charon NW. Genetic analysis of spirochete flagellin proteins and their involvement in motility, filament assembly, and flagellar morphology. J Bacteriol. 2008 Aug190(16):5607-15 p.5609 Table 1PubMed ID18556797
||"Motion analysis and swarm plate assay:
Two methods were used to measure spirochete motility. First, the motility of spirochete cells was measured by swarm agar blood plates. Swarm diameters were determined after 36 h of incubation (24). Second, the velocity of the wild type and mutants was measured by using a software package marketed as Volocity (Improvision, Inc., Coventry, United Kingdom). This software package has recently been used to successfully track B. burgdorferi cells (2, 31). Briefly, 1 µl of late-logarithmic-phase B. hyodysenteriae cultures was added into 20 µl of prereduced saline buffer with 1% methylcellulose (4,000 mesh). The spirochete cells were visualized by dark-field microscopy with a Zeiss Axioskop 2 microscope (Carl Zeiss, Inc., Jena, Germany) at ×200 magnification at 35°C equipped with a heated stage (Physitemp, Inc., Clifton, NJ). Approximately 100 cells of the wild type and all of the mutants were tracked and analyzed. For all of the strains, the velocity of the fastest 25 swimming cells was measured, and the results are expressed as means ± the standard deviations (SD) of the mean"