by dynein motor ~1.0µm/sec: by kinesin motor ~0.3µm/sec µm/sec
||Rat Rattus norvegicus
||Gu Y, Sun W, Wang G, Jeftinija K, Jeftinija S, Fang N. Rotational dynamics of cargos at pauses during axonal transport. Nat Commun. 2012 3: 1030. doi: 10.1038/ncomms2037. p.4 right column bottom paragraphPubMed ID22929787
||P.2 right column 2nd paragraph:"Recently, [investigators] introduced the single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) technique [refs 34, 35, 36] to follow the rotational motion of plasmonic gold nanorods [ref 37] under a differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. Working in the principle of interferometry [ref 38], a DIC microscope generates disproportionate bright and dark interference patterns for gold nanorods in different orientations."
||p.4 right column bottom paragraph:"Supplementary Movie 3 provides a complex example of cargo's behaviours at the directional transport and pausing stages. The corresponding bright and dark DIC intensity curves and the nanorod's lateral displacement are displayed in Fig. 2. The nanorod-containing vesicle was transported for a distance of 4 μm retrogradely by dynein motors at ~1.0 μm s^−1 in the time window of 1–5 s, paused for 5 s, and then moved again in the opposite direction by kinesin motors at a lower velocity of ~0.3 μm s^−1 until the end of the recording." Wiki:"PC12 is a cell line derived from a pheochromocytoma of the rat adrenal medulla, that have an embryonic origin from the neural crest that has a mixture of neuroblastic cells and eosinophilic cells."