||Sens P, Plastino J. Membrane tension and cytoskeleton organization in cell motility. J Phys Condens Matter. 2015 Jul 15 27(27):273103. doi: 10.1088/0953-8984/27/27/273103. p.5 right column bottom paragraphPubMed ID26061624
|| Gauthier N C, Rossier O M, Mathur A, Hone J C and Sheetz M P 2009 Plasma membrane area increases with spread area by exocytosis of a GPI-anchored protein compartment Mol. Biol. Cell 20 3261–72 doi: 10.1091/mbc.E09-01-0071.PubMed ID19458190
||Primary source abstract: "The role of plasma membrane (PM) area as a critical factor during cell motility is poorly understood, mainly due to an inability to precisely follow PM area dynamics. To address this fundamental question, [investigators] developed static and dynamic assays to follow exocytosis, endocytosis, and PM area changes during fibroblast spreading. Because the PM area cannot increase by stretch, spreading proceeds by the flattening of membrane folds and/or by the addition of new membrane. Using laser tweezers, [they] found that PM tension progressively decreases during spreading, suggesting the addition of new membrane."
||P.5 right column bottom paragraph: "During spreading of fibroblasts, membrane area is observed to increase by 80% with the doubling of the cell area in contact with the substrate, and other cell types show similar trends although less dramatic [primary source]. Membrane tensions of unspread and spread cells as measured by tether pulling are identical." Primary source studied HeLa cells, immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts RPTPα, and NIH-3T3 (mouse) fibroblasts