||Keminer O, Peters R. Permeability of single nuclear pores. Biophys J. 1999 Jul77(1):217-28PubMed ID10388751
||Peters R. Nucleo-cytoplasmic flux and intracellular mobility in single hepatocytes measured by fluorescence microphotolysis. EMBO J. 1984 Aug3(8):1831-6PubMed ID6207019
||optical single transporter recording (OSTR), for optically recording the activity of single transporters in membrane patches. Cells or organelles are firmly attached to isoporous filters, and the transport across membrane patches spanning filter pores is measured by confocal laser scanning microphotolysis (SCAMP) (Wedekind et al., 1994), the amalgamation of microphotolysis and laser scanning microscopy. Because the transport rate constant of the single NPC was known, the equivalent length of the channel could be also determined and was found to be 40-50 nm (mean 44.5 nm).
||As a transporter the NPC displays an extraordinary versatility. It has a passive permeability for molecules up to 5-nm radius (Paine et al., 1975, Peters, 1984) and, in addition, transports larger molecules in a signal-dependent manner.