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||J.J.R. Fraústo da Silva and R.J.P. Williams, The Biological Chemistry of the Elements: The Inorganic Chemistry of Life, Oxford University Press, USA 2nd edition (November 1, 2001) Chapter 2 the principals of the uptake and chemical speciation of the elements in biology Table 2.18 p. 68
||T. C. Waddington, Advances in Inorganic Chemistry and Radiochemistry, Vol. I, p. 180, edited by H. J. Emeleus and A. G. Sharpe (Academic Press, London, 1959).
||The various anions of group 17 and oxyanions of groups 14 to 16 show considerable variation in size.