~100 – 150 kcal/mol
||Vorobyov I. et al., Ion-induced defect permeation of lipid membranes. Biophys J. 2014 Feb 4 106(3):586-97. doi: 10.1016/j.bpj.2013.12.027. p.589 left column bottom paragraphPubMed ID24507599
||Abstract: "[Investigators] have explored the mechanisms of uncatalyzed membrane ion permeation using atomistic simulations and electrophysiological recordings." P.586 left column top paragraph: "Here [investigators] have used molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and electrophysiological measurements to better understand and quantify charge-membrane transport processes."
||P.589 left column bottom paragraph: "The ion-induced defect process arises from the large attractive interactions with water and polar lipid moieties (on the order of 100–150 kcal/mol) that drive the membrane deformations. All cations exhibit similar variations in interaction energies with water and lipid headgroups across the bilayer (though these are somewhat larger for Na+ see Fig. 3E and the absolute values plotted in Fig. S6, A and B),. The sums of all components ( Fig. 3F) are also similar in magnitude (with stronger interactions at the interface for GuanH+ [arginine side chain analog guanidinium] and Na+ compared to K+, as suggested previously for the latter two ions (ref 48))."