||Bacteria Escherichia coli
||Cooper TF. Recombination speeds adaptation by reducing competition between beneficial mutations in populations of Escherichia coli. PLoS Biol. 2007 Sep5(9):e225. p.1903 right column 4th paragraphPubMed ID17713986
||p.1903 right column 4th paragraph:"To estimate the total amount of horizontal gene transfer, the number of recombinant cells was first multiplied by the number of genes separating the two markers. Assuming that only half of these transmitted genes become incorporated into the recipient cell's chromosome [ref 54] and that genes outside these markers were not transferred, this number was divided by two to arrive at a conservative estimate for the total number of genes incorporated into the recipient cell chromosome."
||p.1903 right column 4th paragraph:"This calculation [see Measurement Method above] gives an estimate of chromosomal gene transfer between rec+ cells of ~1×10^-4 genes/cell/generation in the evolution environment. Although this rate might seem low, it is nevertheless several orders of magnitude higher than the spontaneous mutation rate, even in the presence of the mutS mutation [refs 18,38]. It is important to note that this assay was performed between donor and recipient cells that both contained the F plasmid therefore, this estimate of gene transfer includes any effect of plasmid surface exclusion in reducing the frequency of conjugation between plasmid-containing cells."