||Nakanishi-Matsui M, Kashiwagi S, Hosokawa H, Cipriano DJ, Dunn SD, Wada Y, Futai M. Stochastic high-speed rotation of Escherichia coli ATP synthase F1 sector: the epsilon subunit-sensitive rotation. J Biol Chem. 2006 Feb 17 281(7):4126-31PubMed ID16352612
||For proton translocation, rotation of the ? subunit is transmitted to the c subunit ring, as shown by rotation of the ??c10 complex relative to the a3ß3ab2 (17). Mechanical rotation of purified F0F1 (17–21) and its membrane-bound form have been shown experimentally (22, 23). The rotation of ??c10 was consistent with cross-linking experiments (21, 24–26). The ? subunit and ??c10 rotated in F1 and F0F1, respectively, essentially at the same rate, generating a frictional torque of ~40 piconewtons·nm.