||Arhel N, Genovesio A, Kim KA, Miko S, Perret E, Olivo-Marin JC, Shorte S, Charneau P. Quantitative four-dimensional tracking of cytoplasmic and nuclear HIV-1 complexes. Nat Methods. 2006 Oct3(10):817-24PubMed ID16990814
||Researchers labeled human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) integrase with a small tetracysteine tag, which preserved the virus' infectivity while allowing it to be labeled with the bis-arsenical fluorescein derivative FlAsH. This labeling allowed them to image both intracytoplasmic and intranuclear HIV-1 complexes in three dimensions over time (4D) in human cells and enabled them to analyze HIV-1 kinetics by automated 4D quantitative particle tracking.
||After compensating for cell movements, researchers found that intranuclear complexes showed very slow and diffuse movements (movement IV), with an average speed of 0.003±0.0003 µm/sec (47 measurements). They found the diffusion coefficient (D) to be between 5e-5 - 2.2e-4 µm^2/sec for diffuse intranuclear movements (after fit with ?r^2=2nD?t, where n is the dimension 3).