Concentrations of Intra- and Extracellular sodium, potassium, calcium and protons of normal mammalian heart cell

Range Table - link
Organism Mammals
Reference Ingwall JS, Balschi JA. Energetics of the Na(+) pump in the heart. J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2006 May17 Suppl 1:S127-S133 p.S128 table 1PubMed ID16686667
Comments "The concentrations of Na+, Ca2+, and H+ in the cytoplasm of the normal mammalian heart (Table 1) are below their electrochemical equilibrium values. Thus, energy must be consumed to extrude these ions from the cell during the normal contractile cycle. Intracellular [K+] is higher than its electrochemical equilibrium value. It leaks from the cell down its electrochemical gradient and energy is required to pump it back to the cytoplasm. The processes that maintain normal chemical gradients of these cations across the cell membrane form a complex and interdependent network of pumps, channels, and exchangers (Fig. 1)."
Entered by Uri M
ID 103966