||Bacteria Escherichia coli
||Kudva R, Denks K, Kuhn P, Vogt A, Müller M, Koch HG. Protein translocation across the inner membrane of Gram-negative bacteria: the Sec and Tat dependent protein transport pathways. Res Microbiol. 2013 Jul-Aug164(6):505-34. doi: 10.1016/j.resmic.2013.03.016 p.511 right column bottom paragraphPubMed ID23567322
||P.511 right column bottom paragraph: "Proteins are synthesised at a rate of 10-20 amino acids per second (BNID 113762), the ribosomal tunnel has a length of approx. 100 Å (Nissen et al., 2000 and see BNID 109578) and a single amino acid occupies approx. 3.5 Å. Thus, within a few seconds after translation is initiated, the polypeptide, given that it is in extended conformation, starts to emerge from the ribosomal exit tunnel."