~3×10^-6 substitutions/site/generation of 20 years
||Human Homo sapiens
||Schneider S, Excoffier L. Estimation of past demographic parameters from the distribution of pairwise differences when the mutation rates vary among sites: application to human mitochondrial DNA. Genetics. 1999 Jul152(3):1079-89. p.1087 right column bottom paragraphPubMed ID10388826
||Jazin E, Soodyall H, Jalonen P, Lindholm E, Stoneking M, Gyllensten U. Mitochondrial mutation rate revisited: hot spots and polymorphism. Nat Genet. 1998 Feb18(2):109-10.PubMed ID9462737
||"...the use of a phylogenetic mutation rate (~3×10^–6 substitutions per site per generation of 20 yr) calibrated by the divergence between humans and chimpanzees (primary source)."
||"To get absolute values for the demographic parameters inferred using the present approach, one should get an estimation of the substitution rate at the nucleotide level. The real value of mutation rate in humans has recently been the subject of an intense debate between those advocating the use of a phylogenetic mutation rate (~3×10^–6 substitutions per site per generation of 20 yr) calibrated by the divergence between humans and chimpanzees (primary source) and those studying the mutation process directly on pedigrees giving numbers ~10 times larger (~2.7×10^–5 substitutions per site per generation, BNID 111228). For the present methodology to be fully beneficial, it thus seems highly necessary to get reliable estimates of mutation rates. Otherwise, the importance of taking into account more realistic mutation models would seem rather futile."