||Rabaey K, Rozendal RA. Microbial electrosynthesis - revisiting the electrical route for microbial production. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010 Oct8(10):706-16. doi: 10.1038/nrmicro2422. p.707 left columnPubMed ID20844557
||Rozendal, R. A., Hamelers, H. V. M., Rabaey, K., Keller, J. & Buisman, C. J. N. Towards practical implementation of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment. Trends Biotechnol. 26, 450–459 (2008). doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2008.04.008.PubMed ID18585807
||Primary source abstract: "Here, [investigators] identify these challenges, provide an overview of their implications for the feasibility of bioelectrochemical wastewater treatment and explore the opportunities for future BESs [Bioelectrochemical systems]."
||P.707 left column: "The addition of a chemical or biological catalyst decreases this activation overpotential but will never eliminate it. Second, when electrons flow through an electrical circuit, ions simultaneously need to move through the electrolyte to restore the charge balance between anode and cathode. The electrolyte has a certain conductivity (for wastewater, typically 1–10 millisiemens per cm)[primary source] and this, together with losses in the electrodes and the electrical circuit, will lead to an ohmic loss. Notably this aspect is crucial for successful scaling up of the technology [primary source]."