||Bacteria Escherichia coli
||Traverse CC, Ochman H. Conserved rates and patterns of transcription errors across bacterial growth states and lifestyles. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 22 113(12):3311-6. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1525329113 p.3311 left column 2nd paragraphPubMed ID26884158
|| Kennell D, Riezman H (1977) Transcription and translation initiation frequencies of the Escherichia coli lac operon. J Mol Biol 114(1):1–21  Golding I, Paulsson J, Zawilski SM, Cox EC (2005) Real-time kinetics of gene activity in individual bacteria. Cell 123(6):1025–1036. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2005.09.031PubMed ID409848, 16360033
||Primary source , Kennell et al., abstract: "[Investigators] have calculated the number of RNA polymerase molecules transcribing the induced lac operon of Escherichia coli as well as the distance between ribosomes on the proximal z and on the distal a messages. These values were derived from: (a) rates of induced enzyme synthesis corrected by known turnover numbers to give numbers of enzyme monomers produced per cell per second, (b) the mass of each message derived either directly by hybridization of long-labeled RNA to specific DNA or from the rates of synthesis and decay obtained by hybridization of pulse-labeled RNA, the latter gives about 13 times better resolution, (c) conversion of message mass into a number of functioning 3′ ends (producing finished polypeptides), size analyses indicate that the z message probably decays by a net directional degradation in the 5′ to 3′ direction. From this the fraction of completed molecules that are full-length and the total number with functional 3′ ends can be derived. (d) Rates of ribosome movement." Primary source , Golding et al., abstract: "Here, [investigators] study single-cell transcription in Escherichia coli by measuring mRNA levels in individual living cells."
||P.3311 left column 2nd paragraph: "Among the multiple types of information processing errors, the majority of research has focused on mutations that occur during DNA replication because such errors are heritable and form the basis of evolutionary change. However, errors that occur during transcription and translation can also have substantial effects on gene function by producing misfolded and malfunctioning proteins. The rate of translation errors is typically an order of magnitude higher than the rate of transcription errors (refs 1–6). However, errors occurring during transcription often elicit more dire consequences than those occurring during translation because individual mRNAs can be translated up to 40 times (primary sources), resulting in a burst of flawed proteins. Therefore, a single transcription error can result in many flawed proteins, whereas a translation error will disrupt only a single protein."