||Park JO et al., Metabolite concentrations, fluxes and free energies imply efficient enzyme usage. Nat Chem Biol. 2016 May 2. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.2077. p.3 right column top paragraphPubMed ID27159581
||Abstract: "Here [investigators] use isotope labeling to measure absolute metabolite concentrations and fluxes in Escherichia coli, yeast and a mammalian cell line. [They] then integrate this information to obtain a unified set of concentrations and ΔG for each organism."
||P.3 left column bottom paragraph: "Combining these concentrations together with ΔG°′ values, [investigators] determined ΔG for most central carbon metabolic reactions (Supplementary Table 4). Focusing on glycolysis, the cumulative free energy change from phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI) to pyruvate kinase (PYK) was, on average, −46 kJ/mol (Fig. 4b)."