30 - 40 % of applied Nitrogen
||Curci PL et al., Transcriptomic response of durum wheat to nitrogen starvation. Sci Rep. 2017 Apr 26 7(1):1176. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-01377-0 p.1 2nd paragraphPubMed ID28446759
|| Hakeem, K. R., Ahmad, A., Iqbal, M., Gucel, S. & Ozturk, M. Nitrogen-efficient rice cultivars can reduce nitrate pollution. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 18, 1184–1193, doi: 10.1007/s11356-010-0434-8 (2011).PubMed ID21359512
||P.1 2nd paragraph: "As a crucial component of amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, chlorophyll and several plant hormones, nitrogen (N) represents a key macronutrient for crop productivity [ref 1]. Its availability influences major plant processes such as growth, development, architecture, flowering, senescence, photosynthesis, and allocation of photosynthates in plants [ref 2]. It is well known that most diffused cereal crop plants, like wheat, rice and maize, use only 30–40% of the applied N fertilizers, while the rest remains unused causing severe environmental pollution [primary source], with eutrophication of water and enrichment of NOx gases in the atmosphere [ref 4]. The newly formed and released nitrous oxide has 300 times more global warming effect than carbon dioxide [ref 5]."