Range: ±3.7 µm/min
||Human Homo sapiens
||Liu YJ et al., Confinement and low adhesion induce fast amoeboid migration of slow mesenchymal cells. Cell. 2015 Feb 12 160(4):659-72. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.01.007. p.665 right column top paragraphPubMed ID25679760
||P.665 right column top paragraph:"To characterize the migration mechanism of confined non-adhesive cells, [investigators] imaged focal adhesions, actin, and myosin II using TIRFM [total internal reflection microscopy]. On the fibronectin-coated surface, cells attached, spread, and formed focal adhesions and actin stress fibers containing myosin II (Figure 6A, upper panel Movie S6)."
||P.665 right column top paragraph:" In A2 cells [for definition of A2 cells see comments section in BNID 112237] migrating under confinement on a non-adhesive surface, Vinculin-GFP was homogeneously distributed in the cytoplasm, and no stress fibers could be observed. Instead, actin filaments assembled into a fibrous cortex that was absent from the cell front, but became progressively denser toward the cell rear at the uropod (Figure 6A, middle panel Movie S6). Myosin II formed patches in A2 cells, mostly on the rear part of the cell where the actin cortex was denser. Both actin filaments and myosin II patches showed a strong retrograde flow in the central part of the cell (15.8 ± 3.7 μm/min SD n = 11, measured in the reference frame of the cell), whereas almost no actin movement was observed in the rear of the cell and in the uropod (Figure 6A bottom panel see also Movie S7 and Figure 6B for flow visualization by particle image velocimetry)."