Table - link Unitless
||Bacteria Escherichia coli
||Henry CS, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V. Thermodynamics-based metabolic flux analysis. Biophys J. 2007 Mar 1 92(5):1792-805 p.1802 table 4PubMed ID17172310
|| Albe, K. R., M. H. Butler, and B. E. Wright. 1990. Cellular concentrations of enzymes and their substrates. J. Theor. Biol. 143: 163–195  Andersen KB, von Meyenburg K. Charges of nicotinamide adenine nucleotides and adenylate energy charge as regulatory parameters of the metabolism in Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 1977 Jun 25 252(12):4151-6. Table - link  Neidhardt, F. C., and R. Curtiss. 1996. Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. ASM Press, Washington, DC PubMed ID2200929, 16925
||"[Investigators] utilized TVA [Thermodynamic variability analysis] to determine if the physiological levels of the concentration ratios ATP/ADP, NAD/NADH, and NADP/NADPH maintained inside the cell are due to thermodynamic constraints by exploring the range of thermodynamically feasible values for these ratios. [Investigators] also used TVA to study the limits on the ratio of the intracellular pH to the extracellular pH as all transport of ions across the cell membrane depends on this ratio. The minimum and maximum ratios found are shown in Table 4 along with the values for these ratios found in the literature (primary sources 47,49,54)."