Number of mutations that occur every time a normal human stem cell divides

Range ≈3 mutations/stem cell division
Organism Human Homo sapiens
Reference Tomasetti C, Li L, Vogelstein B. Stem cell divisions, somatic mutations, cancer etiology, and cancer prevention. Science. 2017 Mar 24 355(6331):1330-1334. doi: 10.1126/science.aaf9011 p.1330 left column and p.1333 middle column 3rd paragraphPubMed ID28336671
Primary Source [8] M. Lynch, Rate, molecular spectrum, and consequences of human mutation. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107, 961–968 (2010). doi:10.1073/pnas.0912629107 [9] Tomasetti C, Vogelstein B, Parmigiani G. Half or more of the somatic mutations in cancers of self-renewing tissues originate prior to tumor initiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 5 110(6):1999-2004. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1221068110PubMed ID20080596, 23345422
Method Primary source Lynch 2010 abstract: "Here, recently established databases on de novo mutations for monogenic disorders are used to estimate the rate and molecular spectrum of spontaneously arising mutations and to derive a number of inferences with respect to eukaryotic genome evolution." Primary source Tomasetti et al., 2013 abstract: "Although it has been hypothesized that some of the somatic mutations found in tumors may occur before tumor initiation, there is little experimental or conceptual data on this topic. To gain insights into this fundamental issue, [investigators] formulated a mathematical model for the evolution of somatic mutations in which all relevant phases of a tissue's history are considered."
Comments P.1330 left column: "It has been extensively documented that approximately three mutations occur every time a normal human stem cell divides (primary sources)." P.1333 middle column 3rd paragraph: "It is, of course, possible that virtually all mutations in all cancers are due to environmental factors, most of which have simply not yet been discovered. However, such a possibility seems inconsistent with the exhaustively documented fact that about three mutations occur every time a normal cell divides and that normal stem cells often divide throughout life."
Entered by Uri M
ID 115305