audio–visual pairs ~25-50ms: audio–tactile pairs ~80ms: visual–tactile pairs 35-65ms msec
||Human Homo sapiens
||The neural bases of multisensory processes [electronic resource] / edited by Micah M. Murray, Mark T. Wallace. Chapter 9 Perception of Synchrony between the Senses, Mirjam Keetels and Jean Vroomen, link paragraph beneath heading 9.4
||Audio-visual pairs: Keetels M, Vroomen J. The role of spatial disparity and hemifields in audio-visual temporal order judgements. Experimental Brain Research. 2005 167: 635–40. AND Zampini M, Shore D.I, Spence C. Audiovisual temporal order judgments. Experimental Brain Research. 2003a 152(2):198–210. AND Zampini M, Guest S, Shore D.I, Spence C. Audio-visual simultaneity judgments. Perception & Psychophysics. 2005b 67(3):531–44. Audio-tactile pairs: Zampini M, Brown T, Shore D.I, et al., editors. Audiotactile temporal order judgments. Acta Psychologica. 2005a 118(3):277–91. AND Visual–tactile pairs Keetels M, Vroomen J. Temporal recalibration to tactile–visual asynchronous stimuli. Neuroscience Letters. 2008b 430(2):130–4. AND Spence C, Shore D.I, Klein R.M. Multisensory prior entry. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General. 2001 130(4):799–832.PubMed ID16175363, 12879178, 16119399, 15698825, 18055112, 11757881
||Paragraph under heading 9.4:"Besides the point at which simultaneity is perceived to be maximal (the PSS), the second measure that one can derive from the TOJ [temporal order judgment] and SJ [simultaneity judgment] task—but which is unfortunately not always reported—is the observers’ sensitivity to timing differences, the JND. The sensitivity to intersensory timing differences is not only of interest for theoretical reasons, but it is also of practical importance, for example, in video broadcasting or multimedia Internet where standards are required for allowable audio or video delays (Finger and Davis 2001 Mortlock et al. 1997 Rihs 1995). One of the classic studies on sensitivity for intersensory synchrony was done by Hirsh and Sherrick (1961). They presented audio–visual, visual–tactile, and audio–tactile stimuli in a TOJ task and reported JNDs to be approximately 20 ms regardless of the modalities used. Although more recent studies have found substantially bigger JNDs and larger differences between the sensory modalities. For simple cross-modal stimuli such as auditory beeps and visual flashes, JNDs have been reported in the order of approximately 25 to 50 ms (primary sources Keetels and Vroomen 2005 Zampini et al. 2003, 2005), but for audio–tactile pairs, primary source Zampini et al. (2005a) obtained JNDs of about 80 ms, and for visual–tactile pairs, JNDs have been found in the order of 35 to 65 ms (primary sources Keetels and Vroomen 2008b Spence et al. 2001). More importantly, JNDs are not constant, but have been shown to depend on various other factors like the spatial separation between the components of the stimuli, stimulus complexity, whether it is speech or not, and—more controversial—the semantic congruency. Some of these factors will be described below."