Range: ±15 pN/µm
||Fish cichlid Hypsophrys nicaraguensis
||Lieber AD et al. Membrane tension in rapidly moving cells is determined by cytoskeletal forces. Curr Biol. 2013 Aug 5 23(15):1409-17. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2013.05.063. p.1412 left column bottom paragraph & p.1413 figure 4cPubMed ID23831292
||P.1412 left column bottom paragraph: "To explore the relation between the actin-generated protrusive forces at the leading edge and membrane tension, [investigators] perturbed actin protrusion biochemically and measured the effect on tension. The fraction of filaments that are uncapped and hence capable of pushing was lowered with cytochalasin D, which increases the rate of barbed-end capping [ref 29] (Figures 4A and 4B, right). Alternatively, the total number of filaments along the leading edge was reduced with an inhibitor of Arp2/3-mediated branching that hinders nucleation of nascent filaments [ref 30] (Figures 4A and 4B, center)."
||P.1412 left column bottom paragraph: "Reducing the number of pushing filaments along the leading edge, either by lowering the fraction of uncapped filaments or by decreasing the total number of filaments, led to a significant decrease in the average membrane tension, by ∼50% in a population of cytochalasin-treated cells (T = 151 ± 12 pN/μm mean ± SEM) and ∼25% in Arp2/3-inhibited cells (T = 222 ± 21 pN/μm), compared to untreated cells (T = 300 ± 15 pN/μm Figure 4C)."