||Chicken Gallus gallus
||Hochmuth RM, Shao J, Dai J, Sheetz MP (1996) Deformation and flow of membrane into tethers extracted from neuronal growth cones. Biophys J 70: 358 –369. doi:10.1016/S0006-3495(96)79577-2 p.365 left column 2nd paragraph p.367 right column 3rd paragraphPubMed ID8770212
||P.363 right column 2nd paragraph: "Extraction of tethers from neuronal growth cones: Neuronal growth cones from chick embryos were cultured and prepared for study as described by Dai and Sheetz (1995a). Latex beads (Duke Scientific, Palo Alto, CA) coated with rat IgG (Sigma, St. Louis, MO) were allowed to adhere to growth cones that, in turn, were adhering to a
cover slip in a chamber mounted upon a microscope stage. The latex beads were held in a laser-tweezers trap, and the stage was moved with a piezoceramic driver (Wye Creek Instruments, Frederick, MD) at a constant velocity away from the bead being held in the laser trap, creating a tether."
||P.365 left column 2nd paragraph: "Bending and tension: The tether force at zero velocity is 8.2 pN (Fig. 5 a), and the tether radius is 210 nm, or 0.21 µm. Thus, from Eq. 27b,
the bending modulus is B=(f0)×(Rt)/(2π) =0.27pN×µm=2.7×10^-19N×m." P.367 right column 3rd paragraph: "Although the tether radius of a neuronal growth cone is large, its bending modulus is not. Its value of 2.7×10^-19N×m is comparable with values of 2.2×10^-19, 2.5×10^-19, and 3.3×10^-19N×m measured, respectively, by Yeung (1994), Evans and Rawicz (1990), and Song and Waugh (1993) for SOPC/CHOL [1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/cholesterol]."