nearly all RNA viruses examined 10^–2 to 10^–5: most viruses within one order of magnitude of 10^−3 substitution/site/year
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||P.270 right column to p.271 left column top paragraph: "Substitution rates in RNA viruses. Evolutionary change in many RNA viruses can be easily observed in real time, providing strong evidence for their rapid evolution [ref 7]. For nearly all RNA viruses examined, overall rates of nucleotide substitution fall in the range of 10^−2 to 10^−5 nucleotide substitutions per site, per year (subs/site/year)(primary sources), with most of the viruses exhibiting rates within one order of magnitude of 1×10^−3 subs/site/year. For an RNA virus with a genome of 10 kb, this is equivalent to the fixation of 10 substitutions per genome, per year, although there is a marked absence of estimates of substitution rate in dsRNA viruses. Although rates of non-synonymous substitution vary widely among RNA viruses (and among viral genes), these differences have only a small impact on overall substitution rates. For example, lower rates of non-synonymous change are found in viruses transmitted by arthropod vectors, reflecting the elevated purifying selection pressure that is associated with replication in diverse host species (refs 34, 35, 36, 37)."