Concentration of virus-like particles (VLP)

Range in rumenal fluid of sheep & cattle using TEM 10^7-10^8 in sheep rumen 1.4×10^10 VLP/ml
Organism Ruminants
Reference Letarov A, Kulikov E. The bacteriophages in human- and animal body-associated microbial communities. J Appl Microbiol. 2009 Jul107(1):1-13. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04143.x. p.2 right column 3rd paragraphPubMed ID19239553
Primary Source Klieve, A.V. and Bauchop, T. (1988) Morphological diversity of ruminal bacteriophages from sheep and cattle. Appl Environ Microbiol 54, 1637–1641. AND Klieve, A.V. and Swain, R.A. (1993) Estimation of rumenal bacteriophage numbers by pulse-field gel electrophoresis and laser densitometry. Appl Environ Microbiol 59, 2299– 2303.PubMed ID3415230, 8357262
Method P.2 right column 3rd paragraph: "Klieve and Bauchop (primary source), using a different method of specimen preparation for TEM, reported 10^7–10^8 VLP/ml in ruminal fluids of the same animal species. Klieve and Swain (primary source) employed pulse-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) for the separation of total genomic DNA extracted from sheep ruminal viral communities. They used laser scanning densitometry for differential quantification of the total DNA content in different zones and calculated a total concentration of 1.4×10^10 VLP/ml."
Entered by Uri M
ID 112502