10^-4 to 10^-6 substitutions per base
||Acevedo A, Brodsky L, Andino R. Mutational and fitness landscapes of an RNA virus revealed through population sequencing. Nature. 2014 Jan 30 505(7485):686-90. doi: 10.1038/nature12861. p.686 left column 2nd paragraphPubMed ID24284629
|| Sanjuán, R., Nebot, M. R., Chirico, N., Mansky, L. M. & Belshaw, R. Viral mutation rates. J. Virol. 84, 9733–9748 (2010)PubMed ID20660197
||P.686 left column 2nd paragraph:"To overcome the limitations of next-generation sequencing error, [investigators] developed circular sequencing (CirSeq), wherein circularized genomic RNA fragments are used to generate tandem repeats that then serve as substrates for next-generation sequencing (for DNA adaptation, see ref. 4). The physical linkage of the repeats, generated by ‘rolling circle’ reverse transcription of the circular RNA template, provides sequence redundancy for a genomic fragment derived from a single individual within the virus population (Fig. 1a and Extended Data Fig. 1)."
||P.686 left column 2nd paragraph:"This accuracy improvement reduces sequencing error to far below the estimated mutation rates of RNA viruses (10^−4 to 10^−6) (primary source), allowing capture of a near-complete distribution of mutant frequencies within RNA virus populations." See BNID 106248