0.3 - 0.5 hours^-1
||Bacteria Escherichia coli
||Szenk M, Dill KA, de Graff AMR. Why Do Fast-Growing Bacteria Enter Overflow Metabolism? Testing the Membrane Real Estate Hypothesis. Cell Syst. 2017 Aug 23 5(2):95-104. doi: 10.1016/j.cels.2017.06.005 p.99 left column 3rd paragraphPubMed ID28755958
||Valgepea K, Adamberg K, Vilu R., Decrease of energy spilling in Escherichia coli continuous cultures with rising specific growth rate and carbon wasting. BMC Syst Biol. 2011 Jul 5 5: 106. doi: 10.1186/1752-0509-5-106 AND Ishii N et al., Multiple high-throughput analyses monitor the response of E. coli to perturbations. Science. 2007 Apr 27 316(5824):593-7. DOI: 10.1126/science.1132067 AND Vemuri GN et al., Overflow metabolism in Escherichia coli during steady-state growth: transcriptional regulation and effect of the redox ratio. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006 May72(5):3653-61. DOI: 10.1128/AEM.72.5.3653-3661.2006PubMed ID21726468, 17379776, 16672514
||P.99 left column 3rd paragraph: "Figure 2 shows a key test of the membrane real estate hypothesis. In E. coli, the onset of fermentation typically occurs at growth rates of 0.3–0.5 hr^−1 (primary sources). But why? [Investigators'] calculation of the minimal amount of electron transport chain needed to fuel growth, summarized in Equation 2 and shown by the red line in Figure 2A, demonstrates how rapidly the electron transport chain's membrane requirements increase with growth rate, eventually becoming untenable."