||Budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
||Morgan B, Ezerina D, Amoako TN, Riemer J, Seedorf M, Dick TP. Multiple glutathione disulfide removal pathways mediate cytosolic redox homeostasis. Nat Chem Biol. 2013 Feb9(2):119-25. doi: 10.1038/nchembio.1142. p.119 right column bottom paragraph & p.120 left column top paragraphPubMed ID23242256
||"To determine the cytosolic EGSH, [investigators] introduced a Grx1-roGFP2 probe [ref 8] into wild-type BY4742 yeast cells. [They] confirmed cytosolic localization by fluorescence microscopy (Supplementary Results, Supplementary Fig. 1a). Consistent with previous observations [refs 9, 10], the cytosolic Grx1-roGFP2 probe was ~5% oxidized at steady state (Fig. 1a), which, using the published midpoint potential of roGFP2 of -280 mV [ref 7], indicates a cytosolic EGSH of -320 mV. Using an estimated total cytosolic glutathione concentration of 10 mM as a basis [ref 6], this equates to a cytosolic GSSG concentration of only 200 nM (Fig. 1a) and a GSH:GSSG molar ratio of 50,000:1."
||"In this study, [investigators] investigated the regulation and interplay of cytosolic glutathione homeostasis and subcellular GSSG distribution. In line with previous findings, [they] show that the cytosolic EGSH is highly reduced (~-320 mV)."