Composition of the lower atmosphere and exosphere

Range Table - link
Organism Biosphere
Reference Duursma EK, Boisson MPRM, Global oceanic and atmospheric oxygen stability considered in relation to the carbon-cycle and to different time scales. Oceanologica Acta (0399-1784) (Gauthier-Villars), 1994 , Vol. 17 , N. 2 , P. 117-141 link p.122 table 1
Primary Source Encyclopedia Britannica (1962). Atmosphere. Encycl. Brit., 2, 633-634 AND Chamberlain J.W. (1978). Theory of Planetary Atmospheres, An Introduction to their physics and chemistry. Academie Press, London, UK, 305 pp AND Budyko M.I., A.B. Ronov and A.L. Yanshin (1987). History of the Earth's Atmosphere. Springer Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany, 139 pp AND Veldkamp J, (1965). Geofysica. Aula Pocket, Spectra, Amsterdam, 442pp
Comments P.131 right column top paragraph: "As shown in Table 1, there are no more undissociated oxygen molecules present above 1000 km height where the exosphere starts. At 2000 km height the exosphere contains only 0, He and H atoms. The fact that 0 and H are present and not N, should indicate a source for both H and 0 atoms. The ratio 0/H is 1:1, which indicates that when the H+ (or proton) is formed from dissociated H2O, there should be at least twice the amount of H over O. Since the ratio is 10^3 0 ions/cm^3: 10^3 H ions/cm^3 (Tab. 1) and given the uncertainty of the data, one may tentatively conclude only that part of the hydrogen (protons) has escaped to space."
Entered by Uri M
ID 116088