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P.9 right column 2nd paragraph: "Similar to hypocotyl growth, epidermal cells largely control sepal growth. The morphology of epidermal cells affects the overall sepal curvature and sepal shape. Through the application of a combination of quantitative and qualitative geometric descriptors, it has been shown that the abaxial sepal epidermal cells display a wide distribution of size and shape (Roeder et al., 2010 BNID 113562). Giant pavement cells have an area up to 20,000 μm^2, but are generally long and skinny, with high aspect ratios, whereas the smallest cells have an area less than 100 μm^2 and are more round with high circularity. These small cells can be quite irregular in shape, though they are generally less interdigitated than leaf pavement cells (Figure 9). As described above, mathematical methods such as principal component analysis and elliptical Fourier analysis have been used to describe organ shape and size (Bensmihen et al., 2008, Chitwood et al., 2013). With these approaches, a more comprehensive description of morphological change in cells and organs integrating with genetics will facilitate the understanding of the underlying mechanism of shape determination." |