Leaf area index (LAI) (see comments section for additional values)

Range Pinus forests 3-4: temperate mixed deciduous forests ~5.5: dense, tall-growing meadows 7-8 unitless
Organism Biosphere
Reference Körner C (2013) Plant-environment interactions. Chapter 12, pp.1065-1166 in: Bresinsky et al. (eds) Strasburger's plant sciences. Springer Berlin Heidelberg p.1070 right column bottom paragraph
Comments P.1070 right column bottom paragraph: "Typical values for LAI are 3–4 for Pinus forests, about 5.5 for temperate mixed deciduous forests, 7–8 for dense, tall-growing meadows, 8 for the sum of all stories in moist-tropical lowland forests, and up to 10 for dense spruce plantations. At peak development, closed agricultural crops achieve values around 4 (depending on species and variety), whereas alpine grassland often operates at LAI <2. Occasionally reported values of LAI exceeding 10 are not realistic. In the case of forests, values of LAI include the shading effects of stems and branches, which explain the frequent use of the term PAI (plant area index), although the contribution of such non-leaf structures to PAI is generally below 1. Calibration of LAI requires destructive measurement of leaf area (harvest)."
Entered by Uri M
ID 113232