Pupation occurs sooner in caterpillars that are allowed to aggregate compared to isolated siblings by

Value 67 hours
Organism Butterfly Small tortoiseshell Aglais urticae
Reference Farmer CG. Parental Care: The Key to Understanding Endothermy and Other Convergent Features in Birds and Mammals. Am Nat. 2000 Mar 155(3):326-334. DOI: 10.1086/303323 p.328 left column top paragraphPubMed ID10718729
Primary Source Heinrich, B. 1981. Ecological and evolutionary perspectives. Pages 235–302 in B. Heinrich, ed. Insect thermoregulation. Wiley, New York.
Comments P.327 right column bottom paragraph to p.328 left column top paragraph: "Even without a nest, some organisms are able to cluster together and to use their own bodies as insulation for the purpose of stabilizing incubation temperature. For example, metabolic heat elevates the body temperature of clustering caterpillars, dramatically affecting their developmental rates. Caterpillars (Vanessa urtica) that are allowed to aggregate pupate 67 h sooner than isolated siblings because of increased developmental temperature (primary source)."
Entered by Uri M
ID 113181