for Golgi 11.4±1.4: for ER [endoplasmic reticulum] 18.6±2.8 pN
||Chicken Gallus gallus
||Upadhyaya A, Sheetz MP. Tension in tubulovesicular networks of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Biophys J. 2004 May86(5):2923-8. p.2925 right column top paragraphPubMed ID15111408
||P.2924 right column bottom paragraph: "To measure the tension of these networks, [investigators] added beads coated with specific antibodies to the ER or lectins that bound to the Golgi fraction in preformed networks. Using an optical trap, beads were bound to network strands and then pulled to form tethers (Fig. 3, a)."
||P.2925 right column top paragraph: "The displacement of the bead
from the trap center was used to measure the tether force
(Fig. 3, b, c and d). Forces were measured from several different parts of the network for larger networks. For each of the fractions, [investigators] found that a fixed value of force was maintained throughout the entire network. The tether force for the Golgi was 11.4 ± 1.4 pN whereas the tether force for the ER was 18.6 ± 2.8 pN (standard deviations from the mean of ∼30 measurements for each case). The distribution of forces was normal. For all of these measurements, the identity of the ER and the Golgi membranes was confirmed by immunostaining."