Different levels of modulation-regulation of carrier activity

Range Table - link
Organism Unspecified
Reference Reinhard Krämer, Analysis and modeling of substrate uptake and product release by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, Metabolic Engineering Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology Volume 54, 1996, pp 31-74 p.45 table 3PubMed ID8623614
Comments "There are at least four different levels of regulation of carrier activity (Table 3): (i) the transport activity simply depends on the availability and concentration of transport substrates and competing ligands in relation to their affinity for the carrier protein, (ii) it may also be influenced by parameters directly modulating kinetics of a carrier system such as intra- and extracellular pH, availability of cotransport ions, ion gradients and membrane potential, or by the medium osmolarity (iii) a further level of control in the short-time range is regulation of the level of activity by interaction with particular effectors which may be internal metabolites (e.g. cyclic AMP), intracellular regulatory proteins or components of other transport systems (e.g. the HPr component of phosphotransferase systems [21] (iv) as an adaptive mechanism to changes in the growth conditions, many carrier systems are effectively regulated on the level of expression."
Entered by Uri M
ID 109656