Decrease in diffusion coefficient in cytoplasm compared to dilute solution

Range 1.5 to 3.8 Fold
Organism Vertebrates
Reference Pielak GJ, Li C, Miklos AC, Schlesinger AP, Slade KM, Wang GF, Zigoneanu IG. Protein nuclear magnetic resonance under physiological conditions. Biochemistry. 2009 Jan 20 48(2):226-34. p.227 right column 1st paragraphPubMed ID19113834
Primary Source 14) García-Pérez et al., Molecular crowding and viscosity as determinants of translational diffusion of metabolites in subcellular organelles. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1999 Feb 15 362(2):329-38. AND (15) Kao HP, Abney JR, Verkman AS. Determinants of the translational mobility of a small solute in cell cytoplasm. J Cell Biol. 1993 Jan120(1):175-84. AND (16) Berland KM, So PT, Gratton E. Two-photon fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: method and application to the intracellular environment. Biophys J. 1995 Feb68(2):694-701. AND (17) Seksek O, Biwersi J, Verkman AS. Translational diffusion of macromolecule-sized solutes in cytoplasm and nucleus. J Cell Biol. 1997 Jul 14 138(1):131-42. AND (18) Luby-Phelps et al., Hindered diffusion of inert tracer particles in the cytoplasm of mouse 3T3 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jul84(14):4910-3. AND (19) Swaminathan R, Hoang CP, Verkman AS.Photobleaching recovery and anisotropy decay of green fluorescent protein GFP-S65T in solution and cells: cytoplasmic viscosity probed by green fluorescent protein translational and rotational diffusion. Biophys J. 1997 Apr72(4):1900-7.PubMed ID9989943, 8416987, 7696520, 9214387, 3474634, 9083693
Method These studies (listed in primary source) used a variety of probes, including small molecules (14, 15), latex beads (16), dextrans (17), Ficolls (17, 18), and GFP (19). Most of this work focused on translational motion, but one study examined rotational dynamics (19).
Comments All these data are consistent with the results from the 19F study (BNID 106191) the eukaryotic cytoplasm decreases diffusion coefficients 1.5-3.8-fold, compared to dilute solution. Please note that attachment of GFP to the protein of interest adds 27 kDa of bulk to the target protein, and provides information only about the environment of the fluorophore, which occurs only once in the target protein. See BNID 106193
Entered by Uri M
ID 106192