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||The permeability of the liposomes to small solutes was performed by rapidly mixing a volume of suspension vesicles at a given concentration of permeant solute with a volume of solution with the osmolarity equilibrated with a non-permeant solute. The effective concentration of the solute in the outer medium is then reduced to half, generating an outward gradient. The outward movement of permeant solute generates an outwardly oriented osmotic gradient, which drives water movement.