||Brown GC. Total cell protein concentration as an evolutionary constraint on the metabolic control distribution in cells. J Theor Biol. 1991 Nov 21 153(2):195-203. p.196 bottom paragraphPubMed ID1787736
||Waterlow JC. Protein turnover with special reference to man. Q J Exp Physiol. 1984 Jul69(3):409-38. AND Welle S, Nair KS. Relationship of resting metabolic rate to body composition and protein turnover. Am J Physiol. 1990 Jun258(6 Pt 1):E990-8.PubMed ID6382379, 2360629
||Primary source Welle & Nair, abstract: "This study examined whether variability among healthy young adults in resting metabolic rate, normalized for the amount of metabolically active tissue (assessed by total body potassium), is related to protein turnover. Resting metabolic rate was measured by indirect calorimetry for 2 h in 26 men and 21 women, 19-33 yr old, with simultaneous estimation of protein turnover during a 4-h infusion of L-[1-13C]leucine."
||P.196 bottom paragraph: "ATP hydrolysis is required for protein synthesis and degradation. In the absence of growth cellular protein is continuously turned over, requiring a significant ATP consumption simply to maintain protein levels. In vitro this ATP usage has been
estimated to be 50% of the total ATP turnover in isolated reticulocytes (BNID 113243) and 36% in cultured ascites tumour cells (BNID 113243). In vivo this ATP usage has been estimated to account for about 20% of the whole body basal metabolic rate (BMR) in mammals (primary sources Waterlow, 1984 Welle & Nair, 1990). Increased protein levels may thus require increased BMR and thus a faster rate of energy acquisition from the environment, plus a faster rate of substrate, product and heat transport within the organism."