||Mouse Mus musculus
||Mariani, L., Schulz, E. G., Lexberg, M. H., Helmstetter, C., Radbruch, A., Löhning, M., & Höfer, T. (2010). Short-term memory in gene induction reveals the regulatory principle behind stochastic IL-4 expression. Molecular systems biology, 6(1). p.2 left column 4th paragraphPubMed ID20393579
||Abstract: "Here, [researchers] study the interleukin-4 gene (il4) in T-helper lymphocytes, combining mathematical modeling with the experimental quantification of expression variability and critical parameters."
||P.2 left column 4th paragraph: "During Th2 differentiation, the probability of a cell expressing IL-4 increases progressively (from ~10 to ~50%), and in the majority of IL-4-expressing cells only one of the two il4 alleles is active (Bix and Locksley, 1998 Riviere et al , 1998). The active allele is not imprinted but chosen randomly upon each stimulation, suggesting an underlying stochastic process (Hu-Li et al, 2001). IL-4-producing cells are enriched for il4 alleles with higher chromatin accessibility (Guo et al, 2004), reduced DNA methylation (Tykocinski et al, 2005) and different architecture of the extended locus (Cai et al, 2006). Although the regulation of IL-4 has been analyzed in considerable detail, the molecular basis for its probabilistic expression remains incompletely understood."