||Matthew W. Hahn, Jason E. Stajich, and Gregory A. Wray, The effects of selection against spurious transcription factor binding sites, Mol Biol Evol. 2003 Jun20(6):901-6 pp. 3, Link - link PubMed ID12716998
||Fairall, L. and J. W. R. Schwabe 2001. DNA binding by transcription factors. Pp. 65- 84 in J. Locker, eds. Transcription factors. Academic Press, Inc, San Diego.
||Transcription is regulated by transcription factors and other parts of the transcriptional machinery in a complicated cellular environment by interacting directly in a sequence-specific manner with short stretches of DNA surrounding the target gene. These binding sites, often found in a well-defined promoter region upstream of the start of transcription, are typically 6-10 base pairs (bp) long (Fairall and Schwabe 2001)