1.2 to 2.2 - 2.5 unitless
||Human Homo sapiens
||Westerterp KR. Alterations in energy balance with exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998 Oct68(4):970S-974S. abstract & p.970S right column 2nd paragraphPubMed ID9771881
||Black AE, Coward WA, Cole TJ, Prentice AM. Human energy expenditure in affluent societies: an analysis of 574 doubly-labelled water measurements. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996 50: 72–92.PubMed ID8641250
||Doubly labeled water method
||Abstract:"The doubly labeled water method for measuring average daily metabolic rate (ADMR) in combination with resting metabolic rate (RMR) allows one to assess the relation between exercise and energy balance. Three topics were included in an analysis of available data: 1) the limits of energy turnover in relation to physical performance for the achievement of energy balance, 2) the effect of an exercise intervention on daily energy turnover and its components, and 3) the effect of exercise on body composition. In the general population, physical activity level (PAL: ADMR/RMR) ranges between 1.2 and 2.2-2.5" p.970S right column 2nd paragraph: "Black et al (primary source) theorized that there are boundaries for activity
levels within the general population. They suggested a range for the physical activity level (PAL: ADMR/RMR) of 1.2–2.5 for sustainable lifestyles. At PAL values of <2.5, subjects have problems maintaining energy balance."