10^-2 - 10^-5 duplications/cell division
||Bacteria Salmonella typhimurium
||Raeside C, et al., Large chromosomal rearrangements during a long-term evolution experiment with Escherichia coli. MBio. 2014 Sep 95(5):e01377-14. doi: 10.1128/mBio.01377-14. p.2 left column 3rd paragraphPubMed ID25205090
||Anderson P, Roth J . 1981. Spontaneous tandem genetic duplications in Salmonella typhimurium arise by unequal recombination between rRNA (rrn) cistrons. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 78 :3113–3117. doi:10.1073/pnas.78.5.3113. p.3114 table 1PubMed ID6789329
||"Large-scale rearrangements occur spontaneously at measurable frequencies, although the rates at which they occur are uncertain. In an older study, duplications were reported to arise at frequencies of between 10^-2 and 10^-5 per cell division, depending on their chromosomal location (primary source)."