Fraction of all genes that have introns in their 5' untranslated regions (UTRs)

Range ~35 %
Organism Human Homo sapiens
Reference Cenik C et al., Genome analysis reveals interplay between 5'UTR introns and nuclear mRNA export for secretory and mitochondrial genes. PLoS Genet. 2011 Apr7(4):e1001366. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001366. p.1 left column top paragraphPubMed ID21533221
Primary Source [1] Cenik C, Derti A, Mellor J, Berriz G, Roth F (2010) Genome-wide functional analysis of human 5′ untranslated region introns. Genome Biology 11: R29. doi:10.1186/gb-2010-11-3-r29. [2] Pesole G, Mignone F, Gissi C, Grillo G, Licciulli F, et al. (2001) Structural and functional features of eukaryotic mRNA untranslated regions. Gene 276: 73–81. doi:10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00674-6. [3] Hong X, Scofield DG, Lynch M (2006) Intron Size, Abundance, and Distribution within Untranslated Regions of Genes. Mol Biol Evol 23: 2392–2404. doi:10.1093/molbev/msl111.PubMed ID20222956, 11591473, 16980575
Comments P.1 left column top paragraph: "In humans, ∼35% of all genes have introns in their 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) [primary sources]. These introns differ from those in coding regions, for example, in typical length and nucleotide composition [primary sources]. Previously, 5′UTR introns (5UIs) were suggested to be evolving under a neutral model of random insertion and deletion events with the sole constraint of avoiding upstream open reading frames [primary source 3]. Recently, [investigators] showed that presence and length of 5UIs correlates with the level of expression across cells and tissue types [primary source 1]. More importantly, [they] observed an uneven distribution of 5UIs amongst genes across specific functional categories [primary source 1]."
Entered by Uri M
ID 113018