||Bacteria Escherichia coli
||Henry CS, Broadbelt LJ, Hatzimanikatis V. Thermodynamics-based metabolic flux analysis. Biophys J. 2007 Mar 1 92(5):1792-805 Table - link PubMed ID17172310
||Neidhardt F.C. Escherichia coli and Salmonella: Cellular and Molecular Biology. ASM Press 1996.
||A new form of metabolic flux analysis (MFA) called thermodynamics-based metabolic flux analysis (TMFA) is introduced with the capability of generating thermodynamically feasible flux and metabolite activity profiles on a genome scale. Researchers utilized TVA (Thermodynamic variability analysis) to determine if the physiological levels of the concentration ratios ATP/ADP, NAD/NADH, and NADP/NADPH maintained inside the cell are due to thermodynamic constraints by exploring the range of thermodynamically feasible values for these ratios. Researchers also used TVA to study the limits on the ratio of the intracellular pH to the extracellular pH as all transport of ions across the cell membrane depends on this ratio. The minimum and maximum ratios found are shown in Table link along with the values for these ratios found in the literature.