Shape of the foveal pit and maximal visual acuity (spatial resolving power) of various bird species

Range Table - link
Organism Birds
Reference Bringmann A. Structure and function of the bird fovea. Anat Histol Embryol. 2019 May48(3):177-200. doi: 10.1111/ahe.12432 pp.185-188 table 1PubMed ID30734347
Primary Source See pointers to refs at right of table
Comments P.180 left column 3rd paragraph: "Large diurnal raptorial birds have the most acute vision among all animals investigated so far and are the only animals with a maximal spatial resolution higher than that of humans which have maximal acuities between 33 and 73 cycles/degree (cpd) (Figure 5a, Campbell & Green, 1965, Reymond & Cook, 1984). These birds include several eagles (100‒142 cpd) and vultures (89‒135 cpd) (Table 1, Fischer, 1969, Reymond, 1985, Reymond & Wolfe, 1981, Shlaer, 1972). Small diurnal raptors, for example certain kestrels and falcons, have maximal spatial acuities comparable to those of humans (15‒76 cpd Figure 5a and Table 1) (Gaffney & Hodos, 2003, Ghim & Hodos, 2006, Hirsch, 1982, Oehme, 1964, Reymond, 1987). Nocturnal birds of prey and non‐raptorial birds have lower acuities, for example owls (3.4‒8 cpd), pigeons (7.5‒25.8 cpd) and passerine birds (6‒33 cpd Figure 5a and Table 1) (Blough, 1971, Dabrowska, 1975, Donner, 1951, Fite & Rosenfield‐Wessels, 1975, Ghim & Hodos, 2006, Hamilton & Goldstein, 1933, Hodos, Miller, & Fite, 1991, Porciatti, Hodos, Signorini, & Bramanti, 1991, Yamamoto, Furuya, & Watanabe, 2001)." See note above table and abbreviations at bottom of table
Entered by Uri M
ID 117191