Genome-scale phylogeny of birds

Range Table - link million years ago
Organism Birds
Reference Jarvis ED et al., Whole-genome analyses resolve early branches in the tree of life of modern birds. Science. 2014 Dec 12 346(6215):1320-31. doi: 10.1126/science.1253451 p.1322 figure 1PubMed ID25504713
Method Abstract: "To better determine the history of modern birds, [investigators] performed a genome-scale phylogenetic analysis of 48 species representing all orders of Neoaves using phylogenomic methods created to handle genome-scale data." See caption to left of figure
Comments P.1322 middle column bottom paragraph: "The total evidence nucleotide alignment partitioned by data type (introns, UCEs [ultraconserved elements], and first and second exon codon positions: third positions excluded as described later) analyzed with ExaML under the GTR+GAMMA model of sequence evolution (SM4) resulted in a highly resolved total evidence nucleotide tree (TENT) (Fig. 1 and fig. S1). The three recognized major groupings within extant birds—Palaeognathae, Galloanseres, and Neoaves (the latter two united in the infraclass Neognathae)—were recovered with full (100%) bootstrap support (BS). The tree revealed the first divergence within extant Neoaves, resulting in two fully supported, reciprocally monophyletic sister clades that [investigators] named Passerea (after its most speciose group Passeriformes) and Columbea (after its most speciose group Columbiformes) (Fig. 1: see SM6 for rationale of clade names)."
Entered by Uri M
ID 117107