≤5 % phage infectivity loss per hour for surface waters
||Chibani-Chennoufi S, Bruttin A, Dillmann ML, Brüssow H. Phage-host interaction: an ecological perspective. J Bacteriol. 2004 Jun186(12):3677-86 DOI: 10.1128/JB.186.12.3677-3686.2004 p.3678 left column 5th paragraphPubMed ID15175280
|| Wommack KE, Hill RT, Muller TA, Colwell RR. Effects of sunlight on bacteriophage viability and structure. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1996 Apr62(4):1336-41PubMed ID8919794
||Primary source abstract: "To address this question, viable and direct counts were carried out employing two Chesapeake Bay bacteriophages in experimental microcosms incubated for 56 h at two depths in the York River estuary."
||P.3678 left column 5th paragraph: "Time series experiments revealed the seasonality in marine phage titers, demonstrating a dynamic relationship between phages and their bacterial hosts (ref 8). In fact, at any given moment the marine phage titer is the net result from two opposing processes: synthesis of new phage particles due to ongoing lytic phage infections, which is balanced by phage decay. Sunlight UV was identified as the major destructive factor (primary source), causing up to 5% phage infectivity loss per hour for surface waters due to thymine dimer formation."