~4.2 ATP/amino acid residue
||Bacteria Escherichia coli
||Kaleta C, Schäuble S, Rinas U, Schuster S. Metabolic costs of amino acid and protein production in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol J. 2013 Sep8(9):1105-14. doi: 10.1002/biot.201200267 p.1112 right column top paragraphPubMed ID23744758
|| Stouthamer, A. H., A theoretical study on the amount of ATP required for synthesis of microbial cell material. Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek 1973, 39, 545–565  Ingraham, J. L., Maaloe, O., Neidhardt, F. C., Growth of the bacterial cell, Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Mass. 1983  Lehninger, A., Nelson, D. L., Cox, M. M., Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, 5th Edn., W. H. Freeman 2008.PubMed ID4148026
||P.1112 left column bottom paragraph: "In a next step, [investigators] combined the computation of the biosynthesis costs of individual amino acids with the computation of the biosynthesis cost of entire proteins (Sect. 2). Besides amino acids, additional energy is required to translate the mRNA from DNA and to polymerize amino acids."
||P.1112 right column top paragraph: "[Investigators] assumed that each amino acid requires a nucleotide triplet that can be synthesized with a cost of 6 ATP [primary source 17]. Furthermore, [they] assumed that on average 30 proteins are translated per mRNA [primary source 25]. Thus, the transcription costs add up to 6 ATP/30 copies per mRNA = 0.2 ATP per amino acid. The costs of translation are 4 ATP per amino acid [primary source 32]. In consequence, the cost of polymerization is approximately 4.2 ATP per amino acid residue. Since LP (linear programming)‐based costs tend to involve non‐canonical routes for the synthesis of individual amino acids, [they] used the costs calculated with the manual method."