||Robert H. Wilson, Spencer M. Whitney, Improving CO2 Fixation by Enhancing Rubisco Performance, 15 February 2017, Directed Enzyme Evolution: Advances and Applications, pp 101-126 p.102 2nd paragraph
|| Long Stephen P, Marshall-Colon A, Zhu X-G (2015) Meeting the global food demand of the future by engineering crop photosynthesis and yield potential. Cell 161(1):56–66 doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.03.019PubMed ID25815985
||P.102 2nd paragraph: "Rubisco is a bifunctional enzyme as it also catalyses RuBP oxygenation to produce
3-PGA and 2-phosphoglycolate (2-PG). As 2-PG is toxic to growth, organisms
have evolved metabolic mechanisms to recycle it [ref 15]. In plants this occurs via photorespiration, a multi-organelle pathway requiring energy and emitting CO2 – resulting in the loss of fixed carbon (Fig. 4.1a). In C3 crops like rice and wheat, this carbon loss typically amounts to 25% of the CO2 assimilated by photosynthesis [primary source]. As a consequence of these catalytic inefficiencies, improving the performance of Rubisco has been an objective spanning more than three decades [refs 17, 53, 85]."