||Red Sea sponge Negombata magnifica
||Taylor MW, Radax R, Steger D, Wagner M. Sponge-associated microorganisms: evolution, ecology, and biotechnological potential. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2007 Jun71(2):295-347. DOI: 10.1128/MMBR.00040-06 p.325 left column 2nd paragraphPubMed ID17554047
|| Hadas, E., D. Marie, M. Shpigel, and M. Ilan. 2006. Virus predation by sponges is a new nutrient-flow pathway in coral reef food webs. Limnol. Oceanogr. 51: 1548-1550. DOI: 10.4319/lo.2006.51.3.1548 link abstract
||P.325 left column 2nd paragraph: "Interestingly, it now appears that even viruses can be retained by sponges, with some 23% of viral particles being removed from seawater by the Red Sea sponge Negombata magnifica (primary source). Considering the enormous abundance of viruses in seawater (1 million to 100 million per ml) (BNID 113291), this could represent a significant flux of nutrients in ecosystems containing large sponge populations." Primary source abstract: "The removal efficiency of viral particles by the coral reef sponge Negombata magnifica was measured. Virus particles were removed by the sponge at an average efficiency of 23.3%±2.9%. Significant amounts of nutrients are transported from virus particles to higher trophic levels via sponges."