≤50,000 sponge body volumes/24 hours
||Sponges phylum Porifera
||Keren R, Lavy A, Mayzel B, Ilan M. Culturable associated-bacteria of the sponge Theonella swinhoei show tolerance to high arsenic concentrations. Front Microbiol. 2015 Feb 25 6: 154. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2015.00154. p.1 left column top paragraphPubMed ID25762993
||Weisz, J. B., Lindquist, N., and Martens, C. S. (2008). Do associated microbial abundances impact marine demosponge pumping rates and tissue densities?. Oecologia 155, 367–376. doi: 10.1007/s00442-007-0910-910PubMed ID18030495
||P.1 left column top paragraph: "Sponges (phylum Porifera) are evolutionarily ancient metazoans, populating all aquatic habitats (Taylor et al., 2007). They are filter-feeders that can filter up to 50,000 times their body volume in 24 h (primary source). The high water volume passing through sponges from the surrounding environment exposes them to high amounts of toxic elements, even if these are present only at trace concentrations (Mayzel et al., 2014). Combined with their important role in establishing benthic communities, sponges offer a good tool for biomonitoring ecosystem health (Maldonado et al., 2012)."