3 - 40 Hz
||Cow Bos Taurus
||Vermot J, Fraser SE, Liebling M. Fast fluorescence microscopy for imaging the dynamics of embryonic development. HFSP J. 2008 Jun2(3):143-55. doi: 10.2976/1.2907579. p.144 left column 2nd paragraphPubMed ID19404468
||Sisson J H, Stoner J A, Ammons B A, and Wyatt T A (2003). “All-digital image capture and whole-field analysis of ciliary beat frequency.” J. Microsc. 211, 103–111.10.1046/j.1365-2818.2003.01209.xPubMed ID12887704
||Primary source abstract:"[Investigators] compared a conventional analog video system with a new high-speed digital system [they] developed for CBF [ciliary beat frequency] analysis. Using ciliated primary bovine bronchial epithelial cells [they] made simultaneous analog and digital CBF measurements of the same region of interest (ROI) while temperature was varied."
||"Dynamic processes in cellular biology span a broad range of velocities and scales. Some examples of this diversity are the speed of cell migration [140–170 µm/h for neural crest cells (BNID 111506)], telomere motion in yeast [~0.05 µm/sec (BNID 111507)], fast calcium waves [10–50 µm/sec (BNID 111508)], red blood cell motion in the developing cardio-vascular system of rodents [1–10 mm/s (BNID 111509)], and the frequency of beating cilia [3–40 Hz (primary source)."